Professor Glyn A Vale
Visiting Professor of Insect Behaviour
Research Fellow -- Behavioural ecology of tsetse and other biting flies
Natural Resources Institute
In 1965, after graduating with a degree in Agriculture from the University of Oxford, Vale joined the Division of Tsetse and Trypanosomaisis Control, Government of Zimbabwe, to run Rekomitjie Research Station in the Mana Pools National Park of the Zambezi Valley, with research interests covering the behaviour, ecology and control of tsetse flies and the environmental risks associated with such control. Most attention was given to studying the responses of tsetse to host animals, and the development of bait methods to control and survey the flies. Between 1970 between 1973 Vale was seconded from the Division to the University of London (University College of Rhodesia). From 1980 onwards, much work was performed in close association with the Tsetse Research Laboratory, University of Bristol, and the Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich.
From 1987 to 1989, Vale was Director of the Division and so was responsible for all tsetse and trypanosomiasis research and control in Zimbabwe, and for liaison with sister organisations in other countries, via the EU-funded Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme for Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe. His main brief then was to supervise the adoption of the new bait methods of tsetse control.
For ten years, starting in 1989, Vale was the Research Co-ordinator for the Regional Programme. This involved his performing his own research in Zimbabwe, helping to establish research stations in nearby countries, training research personnel to MSc and PhD levels, and liaison with research organisations in Europe, particularly the Natural Resources Institute.
After the winding down of the Regional Programme in 1999, Vale has continued as a research advisor to the Zimbabwe Government but has strengthened his association with research bodies outside Zimbabwe, particularly: (i) the Natural Resources Institute, (ii) the Southern African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, University of Stellenbosch (iii) the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and (iv) the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh.
Vale's initial research addressed the behaviour and ecology of tsetse flies, particularly the responses of tsetse to host animals. It soon became clear that the conventional methods of studying such responses were inefficient and misleading, so suggesting the need for much improvement of methods. With the aid of the new methods developed, it emerged that there was much potential for enhancing the cost-effectiveness of baits to control and survey the flies. Most of Vale's subsequent work has involved co-operation with other scientists to maximize this potential. The main outcome of such work has been the improvement of traps to survey tsetse, and the development of control methods based on the use of natural and artificial baits treated with insecticide.
Subsidiary work has been performed on the host-orientated behaviour of mosquitoes and many other flies, partly to explore bait methods of sampling and controlling these insects but also to confirm that baits used for tsetse control have no broad ecological impact. Identifications have been made of the means by which cattle can be treated with insecticide without leading to dung contamination, so avoiding the threat to dung fauna.
The most intriguing aspect of current work is the attempt to develop a means of rationalising and unifying the many apparent distinctions in the behaviour of the various species of tsetse fly. Of particular interest is the extent to which the behavioural distinctions that determine the different vectorial capacities of the various species result from the innate differences between the flies, as against being immediate consequences of their contrasting environment. Understanding such matters has an important bearing on predicting the impacts of tsetse control and environmental change on the epidemiology of tsetse-borne diseases.
Responsibilities within the University
- Vale, G.A., Chamisa, A., Mangwiro, C. and Torr, S.J. (2013) A Neglected Aspect of the epidemiology of sleeping sickness: the propensity of the tsetse fly vector to enter houses. PloS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(2): e2086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002086.
- Torr, S.J., Chamisa, A., Mangwiro, T.N.C, and Vale G.A. (2012) Where, when and why do tsetse contact humans? Answers from studies in a national park of Zimbabwe. PloS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(8): e1791. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.
- Torr, Steve J. and Vale, Glyn A. (2011) Is the even distribution of insecticide-treated cattle essential for tsetse control? Modelling the impact of baits in heterogeneous environments. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5 (10):e1360. ISSN 1935-2727 (Print), 1935-2735 (Online) (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001360)
- Torr, S.J., Della Torre, A., Calzetta, M., Costantini, C. and Vale, G.A. (2008) Towards a fuller understanding of mosquito behaviour: use of electrocuting grids to compare the odour-orientated responses of Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus in the field. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 22 (2). pp. 93-108. ISSN 0269-283X (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00723.x)
- Vale, G.A. and Torr, S.J. (2005) User-friendly models of the costs and efficacy of tsetse control: application to sterilizing and insecticidal techniques. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 19, pp. 293-305.
- Vale, G.A. and Grant, I.F. (2002) Modelled impact of insecticide-contaminated dung on the abundance and distribution of dung fauna. Bulletin of Entomological Research,92, pp. 251-263.
- Vale, G.A. (1999) Responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to vegetation in Zimbabwe: implications for population distribution and bait siting. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Supplement Series No. 3: 1998, pp. 1-59.
- Vale, G.A. (1993b) Development of baits for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Zimbabwe. J. med. Ent. 30, pp. 831-842.
- Vale, G.A. (1993a) Visual responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to odour-baited targets. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83, pp. 277-289.
- Vale, G.A., Hall, D.R. and Gough, A.J.E. (1988) The olfactory responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to odours of phenols and urine in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 78, pp. 293-300.
- Vale, G.A., Lovemore, D.F., Flint, S. and Cockbill, G.F. (1988) Odour-baited targets to control tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Zimbabwe. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 78, pp. 31-49.
- Vale, G.A., Hargrove, J.W., Cockbill, G.F. and Phelps, R.J. (1986) Field trials of baits to control populations of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 76, pp. 179-193.
- Vale, G.A. and Hall, D.R. (1985) The use of 1-octen-3-ol, acetone and carbon dioxide to improve baits for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 75, pp. 219-231.
- Vale, G.A. (1982) The trap-orientated behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossinidae) and other Diptera. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 72, pp. 71-93.
- Vale, G.A. (1980) Flight as a factor in the host-finding of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 70, pp. 299-307.
- Vale, G.A. and Hargrove, J.W. (1979) A method of studying the efficiency of traps for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other insects. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 69, pp. 183-193.
- Hargrove, J.W. and Vale, G.A. (1978) The effect of host odour concentration on catches of tsetse flies (Glossinidae) and other Diptera in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 68, pp. 607-612.
- Vale, G.A. (1977) The flight of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to and from a stationary ox. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 67, pp. 297-303.
- Vale, G. A. (1974b) Responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to mobile and stationary baits. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 64, 545-588.
- Vale, G.A. (1974a) New field methods for studying the responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to hosts. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 64, pp. 199-208.
- Vale, G.A. (1971) Artificial refuges for tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 61, pp. 331-350.
Recent Conference Presentations
- Vale G.A. 2011. Contact between humans and tsetse flies in Zimbabwe. In: ITM/DVTD, Neglected tropical diseases and zoonoses in Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa.
- President of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association
- Editor of Zimbabwe Science News
- Editor of Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association
- 2008 OBE
- 2003 African Union Gold Medal
- 2003 World Technology Network Honorary Fellow
- 2002 Royal Entomological Society Honorary Fellow
- 1988 Ciba-Geigy International Prize for Research in Animal Health
- 1985 President of Zimbabwe Certificate of Distinction
- 1979 Zimbabwe Natural Resources Board Special Award
- 1976 Zimbabwe Scientific Association Gold Medal
Dr. Glyn A Vale
Natural Resources Institute
University of Greenwich
Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom.
Tel: +44 (0) 2634 304902